154 MY COUNTRY AND MY PEOPLE led Wu Sankwei to enter Peking with the assistance of Manchu troops for her recovery, and in this way directly contributed to the founding of the Manchu Dynasty. It is noteworthy that after Wu had thus brought about the downfall of the Chinese Ming empire, Ch'en Yuanyuan separated from him and chose to live as a nun in a specially built monastery on Shangshan. We have also the case of Li Hsiangchiin, who was reputed for her constancy and whose political inclinations and courage put many a man to shame by comparison. She had more political chastity than many men revolutionists of to-day. After her lover had been hounded out of Nanking she shut herself up, and when she was forcibly brought to the home of the official in power and commanded to sing at a wine-feast, she improvised songs of satire in the presence of her captors, who were her political enemies, calling them "adopted sons of the eunuch." Poems and songs written by these ladies have been handed down to the present. The history of Chinese intellectual women will have to be sought partly in the lives of such accomplished courtesans as Hstieh T'ao,Ma Hsianglan,LiuJushih and others. The courtesan supplied the need for courtship and romance which many men missed in their youth before marriage. I speak of "courtship" advisedly, because the sing-song girl, differing from the common prostitutes, had to be courted. Such was the respect for ladies in China that, as we are told in the novel Chiuweikuei (Nine-Tailed Tortoise) describing modern times, many a man had to court a lady of supposedly easy virtue for months and spend three or four thousand dollars before he was permitted to pass a night in her boudoir. Such a preposterous situation was possible only with the seclusion of women, but when men could not find female company and romance elsewhere, it was also perfectly natural. The man, inexperienced in female company and tired of his wife-cook- and-sock-darner, began to experience what Western men call romance before their marriage. He saw a lady who took his fancy, desired her, and began to have a feeling analogous to falling in love. The lady, being so much more experienced and accomplished, had an easy game, and the man sometimes had a feeling almost of worship. It was, in fact, the one kind of court- ship legitimate and proper in China.